Blenheim Palace
Family Tree

Family Tree

Explore the Marlborough family tree from the first Duke right up to the 12th Duke of Marlborough in residence at Blenheim Palace today.  

Family Tree

Explore the Marlborough family tree from the first Duke right up to the 12th Duke of Marlborough in residence at Blenheim Palace today.  

 

In 1688 John Churchill supported William III when William invaded and took the throne from James II. For his loyalty William elevated John from the lowest rank of the peerage, Baron, to that of Earl. As his title he chose Marlborough because an earlier generation (a cousin of his mother), had previously been Earl of Marlborough (a title normally becomes defunct when the last male heir dies). He was given the Dukedom in 1702 and became the first Duke of Marlborough.

1st Duke of Marlborough
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John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

A tapestry of the Battle of Blenheim

A tapestry of the Battle of Blenheim

An early architectural plan of the Palace

An early architectural plan of the Palace

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
A tapestry of the Battle of Blenheim
An early architectural plan of the Palace

1st Duke of Marlborough

The one who built Blenheim Palace

John Churchill was born on 26th May 1650, to Winston Churchill (later Sir Winston Churchill) and his wife Elizabeth. Sir Winston had been fined heavily by Oliver Cromwell at the end of the Civil War, but the family’s fortunes took a turn for the better when Charles II was restored to the throne.

In 1665, Winston Churchill’s eldest daughter (and John’s sister), Arabella, became Maid of Honour to Anne Hyde, the Duchess of York. Some months later she was joined by John, as page to her husband, James. This was the start of John’s brilliant military career, which culminated during the reign of Queen Anne when he won the Battle of Blenheim during the War of Spanish Succession.

The Battle of Sedgemoor

In 1685, John Churchill was at the centre of events and controversies surrounding the Royal family. There was opposition in the country against the new King James II because he was a Catholic. So much so, that the Duke of Monmouth, an illegitimate son of Charles II, led a Protestant rebellion against the King.

The King appointed Lord Feversham to lead his army against the rebellion - but it was John Churchill who ensured victory at the Battle of Sedgemoor. The rebels were soundly defeated. Churchill left after the battle though, and took no part in the savage reprisals that took place afterwards on the orders of the infamous Judge Jeffreys.

Churchill was disappointed, however, that it was Feversham who gained all the rewards from the King after the Battle – setting in motion a change of events that saw Churchill switch allegiance.

The Glorious Revolution

During the reign of James II, Churchill’s wife, Sarah, became very close to the King’s younger daughter, Anne. When it appeared that the King had high hopes of persuading Anne to become a Catholic, John and Sarah advised her to stand firm in the Protestant faith. Churchill also wrote to William of Orange (husband of James II’s elder daughter, Mary) to assure him that he (Churchill) would remain a Protestant. This paved the way for Churchill’s transfer of loyalties from James to William of Orange during the Glorious Revolution in 1688.

Protestants hoped that James II would die without a son and so William and Mary would inherit the throne. When William was in negotiation with the rebels, he agreed to allow his wife to accept the Crown on the understanding that he would rule as a joint monarch. This meant that should his wife die before him, William could then continue to rule as King in his own right.

William and Mary

The plan hit problems when James II and his wife produced a healthy son - meaning a Catholic succession to the throne. Powerful Protestants at Court wrote to William of Orange, encouraging him to intervene and take the Crown.

William landed in England with an army in November 1688. Churchill, who was at this time still James’s Lieutenant-General, left the King's camp and went over to William’s side.

On taking the crown, William ruled jointly with his wife Mary. Churchill, meanwhile, was at the centre of political circles - but never quite gained the favour and rewards from the King for which he hoped.

He was given the title of Earl of Marlborough in 1689 but this was not enough. He had wanted to be made Master of the Ordnance, Captain General of the Armed forces (i.e. Commander in Chief) and he particularly wished for the Order of the Garter. These were not granted to him because William did not trust him – and when William faced rebellion in Ireland by supporters of James II, he kept the new Earl of Marlborough out of the main fighting.

In 1692 it emerged that John Churchill, Earl of Marlborough, had been in contact with the exiled King James II. Disappointed by his lack of promotion, Churchill had thought it advisable to build bridges with James in France.

Churchill was arrested, stripped of his civil and military posts and imprisoned in the tower for six weeks on a charge of treason. However, there was not enough evidence to bring him to trial and he was released.

Queen Anne and the War of Spanish Succession

In February 1702, William of Orange died and was succeeded by his sister-in-law, Anne. John Churchill’s fortunes revived.

His wife Sarah was a close friend to the new Queen Anne, to the extent that they had nicknames for one another. The Queen called herself Mrs Morley, and Sarah and John were known as Mr and Mrs Freeman.

Churchill was given the Order of the Garter and made Master of the Ordnance – and on the 14th of December 1702, he became the 1st Duke of Marlborough. It was shortly after this that he left for Europe to lead the long campaign against the French. The war in which he directed affairs became known as the War of Spanish Succession.

The King of Spain, Charles II, had no direct heir. The nearest possible heir was the Dauphin of France – but for France to gain control of Spain and all its territories was unthinkable in Europe at that time as it could dominate all of Europe. European diplomacy worked to prevent this, and eventually the French King, Louis XIV agreed that France would not claim the Spanish crown, in return for compensation.

The old Spanish King disagreed with this decision though, and before dying he made a will leaving the Spanish Empire to the grandson of Louis XIV (the Dauphin). Louis knew there would be trouble if he allowed this to go ahead, but he still sent his grandson south to be crowned Philip V of Spain. This action led to the formation of a Grand Alliance between England, Holland and the Holy Roman Empire.

Marlborough was Generalissimo of this Alliance, and fought and won many battles as its leader. After the 1704 Battle of Blenheim, there came the Battle of Ramillies in 1706, the Battle of Oudenarde in 1708, the Battle of Malplaquet in 1709 and the Siege of Bouchain in 1711.

It was the success at the Battle of Blenheim, however, that saw the Duke of Marlborough rewarded with the Manor of Woodstock with its 2,000 acres and the means with which to build what was to become Blenheim Palace.

Winston Churchill wrote in his book ‘Marlborough: His Life and Times’ that the Duke preserved a complete silence, offering neither explanations nor excuses for any of his deeds or achievements. His only answer was this Great House.

1st Duke of Marlborough

1st Duke of Marlborough, John (b. 1650, d. 1722) married (m. 1678) Sarah Jenyns (b. 1660, d.1744), daughter of Richard Jenyns of St.Albans.

Duke from 1702 - 1722, had seven children. 
The 1st Duke and Duchess’ first child was a little girl, Harriet, born October 1679 but did not live long.

Children of the 1st Duke

  • Anne (b. 1684, d. 1716) married  Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl Sunderland
  • John Marquess of Blandford (b. 1686, d. 1703)
  • Mary (b. 1689, d. 1751) married  John, 2nd Duke of Montagu
  • Elizabeth (b. 1687, d. 1714) married Scroop, 5th Earl Bridgewater
  • Charles (b. 1690, d. 1692)

After the 1st Duke’s second and only surviving son died in 1703, an act of Parliament was passed in 1706 stipulating that in this family the title may pass to and through the female line.

2nd Duchess of Marlborough
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Henrietta Churchill, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough

Henrietta Churchill, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough

A family portrait of the 1st Duke. Henrietta is the daughter in green.

A family portrait of the 1st Duke. Henrietta is the daughter in green.

Henrietta Churchill, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough
A family portrait of the 1st Duke. Henrietta is the daughter in green.

2nd Duchess of Marlborough

The one who became a Duchess in her own right

In 1703, the 1st Duke of Marlborough lost his last surviving son to smallpox. This meant there was no longer a male heir to the Dukedom.

An Act of Parliament, passed in 1706, established that in the event of a lack of a male heir, the title could be passed down through the female line. The Duke of Marlborough’s eldest daughter, Henrietta, therefore inherited the title on her father’s death.

Henrietta left no male heir, meaning the title then went to the family of her sister Anne. Unfortunately Anne died before Henrietta meaning that her son Charles Spencer was the only male heir. Charles became the 3rd Duke in 1733.

Sadly, this meant the Churchill name was lost, but it was later brought back to the family by the 5th Duke. By royal licence, he was allowed to change the family name to Spencer-Churchill.

2nd Duchess of Marlborough

2nd Duchess of Marlborough, Henrietta (b. 1681, d. 1733, m.1698) married Francis 2nd Earl Godolphin.

Succeeded as Duchess in 1722. When Henrietta died her nephew, Charles Spencer, 5th Earl Sunderland, inherited the Marlborough title. 

Duchess from 1722-1733, had three children.

 

3rd Duke of Marlborough

Charles Spencer (b. 1706, d. 1758) married Elizabeth, daughter of Earl Trevor.

Duke from 1733-1758, had five children.

Brothers and Sisters of the 3rd Duke

  • Robert Spencer, 4th Earl Sunderland (b. 1701, d. 1729)
  • John Spencer (ancestor of the Earls Spencer) married Georgina, daughter of Earl Granville b.1708 d.1746
  • Diana Spencer (b. 1708, d. 1735) married John Russell, later 4th Duke of Bedford
  • Anne Spencer (b. 1702 d. 1769) married 1st Viscount Bateman 
3rd Duke of Marlborough
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Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough

Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough

Family portrait of the 3rd Duke

Family portrait of the 3rd Duke

Lady Diana Spencer

Lady Diana Spencer

Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough
Family portrait of the 3rd Duke
Lady Diana Spencer

3rd Duke of Marlborough

The one who died on campaign in Europe

Charles Spencer inherited the Dukedom from his aunt, Henrietta, in 1733. The 3rd Duke led the British expeditionary force on Continental Europe in the early part of the Seven Years’ War, but died in 1758. He is the only Duke of Marlborough to have died on campaign.

During his lifetime, he lived at Blenheim Palace only occasionally, preferring instead to live at Langley Park, his Buckinghamshire home.

Charles had a daughter called Lady Diana Spencer; Sarah, the 1st Duchess was very keen for her to marry the Prince of Wales, but her ambition was never fulfilled. Just like her descendant Diana, Princess of Wales, Lady Diana died young.

The recent Princess Diana was a direct descendant of the 1st Duke of Marlborough. The Earls Spencer are descendants of Charles’s younger brother John, who lived at Althorp House in Northamptonshire.

4th Duke of Marlborough
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George Spencer, 4th Duke of Marlborough

George Spencer, 4th Duke of Marlborough

Family portrait of the 4th Duke

Family portrait of the 4th Duke

The Tigress that lived on the Estate

The Tigress that lived on the Estate

George Spencer, 4th Duke of Marlborough
Family portrait of the 4th Duke
The Tigress that lived on the Estate

4th Duke of Marlborough

The one who employed 'Capability' Brown

The 4th Duke, George Spencer, was quite a remarkable man. The first Duke to live exclusively at Blenheim Palace, he inherited the title at the age of 19 and was Duke for 59 years – giving him plenty of time to make his mark.

George was a man of taste, vigour and wealth. He brought in William Chambers to make important changes both inside and outside the house – and famously employed 'Capability' Brown to landscape the park and gardens. It was 'Capability' Brown who, under the watchful eye of the 4th Duke, created the stunning views seen across the Estate today, developing the Lake and Cascades and redesigning the Great Court and the South Front.

The Duke was also interested in the latest transport developments sweeping Britain at the time. He had an additional cut dug from the Oxford Canal to the River Isis (Thames) to connect with his salt works - considerably shortening the usual journey time.

George’s wife, Caroline, was a leading light in society, but she was also aware of her duty to help the poor. She had the almshouses built in Woodstock.

There was also another important female at Blenheim Palace during George’s time as Duke; Clive of India gave him a tigress. The tigress lived in the Palace grounds in a menagerie at Park Farm, and there were regular orders made to the local butcher in order to feed her. The Palace ledgers show that the Tigress cost the same as three servants to feed.

4th Duke of Marlborough

George Spencer (b. 1739, d. 1817  married Caroline Russell, daughter of Duke of Bedford (b. 1743, d. 1811)

Duke from 1758-1817, had eight children. 

5th Duke of Marlborough

George Spencer-Churchill (b. 1766, d. 1840) married Susan, daughter of 7th Earl of Galloway (b. 1767, d. 1841)

Duke from 1817-1840, had six children. 

5th Duke of Marlborough
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George Spencer-Churchill, 5th Duke of Marlborough

George Spencer-Churchill, 5th Duke of Marlborough

5th Duke of Marlborough

The one who reclaimed the Churchill name

The 5th Duke was authorised to take the name of Churchill and use it with and after the name of Spencer, so that the name of the 1st Duke lives on in his ancestors. This made him the first of the Spencer-Churchills.

During his time as the Duke, Blenheim Palace’s fortunes were at a low point. The 5th Duke spent vast sums of money on the gardens, buying rare plants and flowers, particularly orchids. He also created a whole range of specialist gardens that have since all gone except for the Rose Garden, which was restored by the 11th Duke.

Having spent such a lot of money, George Spencer-Churchill is sometimes known as the ‘Profligate Duke’. He did, however, leave a legacy by decorating the former Arcade Rooms with exquisite panoramic wallpaper depicting a tiger hunt in India. The Indian Room, as it is now known, is today used as our Tea Room.

The 5th Duke was authorised to take and use the name of Churchill, in addition to and after that of Spencer, in order to perpetuate the family surname of John, 1st Duke of Marlborough.

6th Duke of Marlborough

George Spencer-Churchill (b. 1793, d. 1857)  married: 

  • (i) Jane, daughter of 8th Earl of Galloway (died 1844) 
  • (ii) Charlotte, daughter of Viscount Ashbrook (died 1850)
  • (iii) Jane, daughter of Honourable Edward Stewart (died 1897)

Duke from 1840-1857, had seven children.

 

6th Duke of Marlborough
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George Spencer-Churchill, 6th Duke of Marlborough

George Spencer-Churchill, 6th Duke of Marlborough

6th Duke of Marlborough

The one who ordered that his papers be burned

Though the 6th Duke of Marlborough, George Spencer-Churchill, was at Blenheim for 17 years, very little is known about him and his time at the Palace. This is because he ordered his records and documents to be destroyed after his death.

What we do know is that he was a Member of Parliament and made many rousing speeches to his fellow MPs. He was also responsible for moving the kitchens at Blenheim Palace from their original position in the East Courtyard (Kitchen Court) to inside the Palace itself.

7th Duke of Marlborough
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John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough

John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough

7th Duke of Marlborough

The one who sold off the Long Library

The 7th Duke, John Spencer-Churchill, brought stability to Blenheim Palace. He was an upright Victorian gentleman, with a wife Frances and 11 children.

Frances continued the ducal tradition of helping others, and founded schools in Woodstock and the neighbouring village of Bladon. Despite the Marlborough's a relatively limited income, Frances hosted weekend parties and glamorous balls.

When the Duke went to Ireland as Viceroy, the Duchess worked tirelessly to raise money to reduce the effects of the second Irish potato famine. She was admired the length and breadth of Ireland for her efforts and received a personal letter from Queen Victoria thanking her for her work.

On his return from Ireland, the Duke found that his finances were even more depleted; as a result of this, he sold the Sunderland Library, a major book collection. This began the process which enabled the 8th Duke to dispose of other major parts of the Blenheim collection.

7th Duke of Marlborough

John Winston Spencer-Churchill (b.1822, d. 1883) married Frances, daughter of Marquess of Londonderry (d. 1899)

Duke from 1857-1883, had eleven children. Grandfather of Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill.

 

8th Duke of Marlborough

George Charles Spencer-Churchill (b. 1844, d. 1892) married:

  • (i) Albertha, daughter of Duke of Abercorn (d. 1932)
  • (ii) Lilian, daughter of Cicero Price (d. 1909)

Duke from 1883-1892 had four children.

Brother of 8th Duke

Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill (b. 1849, d. 1895) married Jennie, daughter of Leonard Jerome (USA) (d. 1921)


Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (born at Blenheim Palace 30th November 1874, d. 1965) married Clementine, daughter of Sir Henry Montagu Hozier (d. 1977)

View the Winston Churchill timeline

8th Duke of Marlborough
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George Charles Spencer-Churchill, 8th Duke of Marlborough

George Charles Spencer-Churchill, 8th Duke of Marlborough

A recreation of the 8th Duke's laboratory

A recreation of the 8th Duke's laboratory

George Charles Spencer-Churchill, 8th Duke of Marlborough
A recreation of the 8th Duke's laboratory

8th Duke of Marlborough

The one who built a laboratory

Following the example of his father who had sold the Sunderland Library, the 8th Duke sold many 'Old Masters'. The funds raised from this were used for Palace maintenance and improvements to the Estate. These actions caused his brother Randolph to refer to him as 'The Wicked Duke'.

The 8th Duke was very much a scientist. He constructed his own laboratory where his startling experiments sometimes caused the more impressionable staff to view him as a magician. He introduced gas, electricity, central heating and an internal telephone system of his own design to the Palace.

The 8th Duke’s brother was Randolph. Randolph married Jennie Jerome and had two sons, one of whom was Sir Winston Churchill, who was born at the Palace in November 1874.

View Churchill's timeline

9th Duke of Marlborough
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Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough

Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough

The building of the Water Terraces, 1926

The building of the Water Terraces, 1926

The 9th Duke with his cousin, Sir Winston Churchill

The 9th Duke with his cousin, Sir Winston Churchill

Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough
The building of the Water Terraces, 1926
The 9th Duke with his cousin, Sir Winston Churchill

9th Duke of Marlborough

The one who created the Formal Gardens

When the 9th Duke, Charles Spencer-Churchill, inherited the Estate in 1892, he was determined to restore and update the look of the Palace. The only problem with this was his lack of funds. He solved this problem by marrying Consuelo Vanderbilt, who was a member of one of America’s richest families.

With her dowry, he completely redecorated the first, second and third State Rooms, and re-equipped the Long Library. Outside, he created two of our Formal Gardens, the Water Terraces and the Italian Garden, and restored the Great Court to what we see today. The 9th Duke also restored the Grand Avenue of elms, planting half a million trees in total during his time at the Palace.

Consuelo, meanwhile, did lots to help the poor in the local area, taking food from the Palace to those in need. She visited the almshouses and the houses of the elderly and sick. Consuelo also went to the school in Bladon to listen to the children read and to help them with their needlework and cooking.

Although Consuelo had been a reluctant Duchess, she played her part as a hostess and welcomed royalty and members of the British aristocracy to Blenheim Palace. It helped that one of her closest friends was Sir Winston Churchill. She admired and identified with Churchill’s vitality and ambition, but was careful not to invite him to Blenheim Palace at the same time as their friends, the Astors. Winston did not get on with Nancy Astor (the first female MP), and on one occasion when they clashed, Nancy commented that if she were married to Winston she would put poison in his drink. Winston replied that if he were her husband, he would drink it.

View Churchill's timeline

9th Duke of Marlborough

Charles Richard John Spencer-Churchill (b.1871 Suc. 1892 d. 1934) married

  • (i) Consuelo Vanderbilt in 1895 (d. 1964)
  • (ii) Gladys Deacon in 1921 (d. 1977)

Duke from 1892-1934, had 2 children.

10th Duke of Marlborough

10th Duke of Marlborough, John Albert Edward William Spencer-Churchill (b. 1897, d. 1972) married:

  • (i) (1920) Alexandra Mary Cadogan, daughter of Viscount Chelsea (d. 1961)
  • (ii) (1972) Laura, daughter of Honourable Guy Charteris (d. 1990)

Duke from 1934-1972, had five children.

Brother

  • Ivor Charles Spencer-Churchill (born 1898, died 1956)

 

10th Duke of Marlborough
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John Albert Spencer-Churchill, 10th Duke of Marlborough

John Albert Spencer-Churchill, 10th Duke of Marlborough

The opening of the Palace to the public

The opening of the Palace to the public

10th Duchess in her Red Cross uniform

10th Duchess in her Red Cross uniform

John Albert Spencer-Churchill, 10th Duke of Marlborough
The opening of the Palace to the public
10th Duchess in her Red Cross uniform

10th Duke of Marlborough

The one who opened Blenheim Palace to the public

John Albert Edward William Spencer-Churchill, the 10th Duke of Marlborough, was better known as 'Bert'. He was Duke during the Second World War and welcomed the boys from Malvern College as evacuees, and later allowed MI5 to use the Palace as a base. The Duke himself rejoined his regiment as Lieutenant-Colonel and worked as a liaison officer in the British Army with the American armed forces in Britain, meanwhile the Duchess ensured that the Palace was equipped for War and continued to work tirelessly in her role as President of the local branch of the Red Cross.

Bert’s principal legacy at Blenheim Palace was his decision to open the Palace to the public on 1st April 1950. He also installed the fountains in the Water Terraces and designed the Secret Garden, a place where he could enjoy peace and quiet away from the visitors.

11th Duke of Marlborough
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John George Spencer-Churchill, 11th Duke of Marlborough

John George Spencer-Churchill, 11th Duke of Marlborough

11th Duke of Marlborough

The one who made us a World Heritage Site

John George Spencer-Churchill, the 11th Duke, devoted his life to the preservation of the Palace. He faced a difficult task - balancing the needs of the modern day visitor with the necessity of maintaining a World Heritage Site.

He said that "Although the Battle of Blenheim was won in 1704, the Battle for Blenheim continues in the unceasing struggle to maintain the structure of the building and to obtain the finance for the future."

The 11th Duke introduced the Pleasure Gardens, including the Railway, Maze and Butterfly House, and also set up a Churchill Exhibition in the Palace. He also restored his father’s Secret Garden in 2004, as part of the tercentenary celebrations of the Battle of Blenheim.

During the 11th Duke’s time, Blenheim Palace has hosted music concerts, craft fairs and major sporting and charity events.

11th Duke of Marlborough

John George Vanderbilt Henry Spencer-Churchill (born 13th April 1926)

Duke from 1972 - 2014 

John George Vanderbilt Henry Spencer-Churchill (born 13th April 1926) married:

  • (i)  Susan Mary, daughter of Michael Hornby (m.1951-1961, d. 2005)
    • John David Ivor Spencer-Churchill (b. 1952, d. 1955)
    • 12th Duke of Marlborough - Charles James Spencer-Churchill (b. 24th November 1955) 
    • Henrietta Mary Spencer-Churchill (b. 1958) married (1980) Nathan Gelber
      • David Aba Gelber (b. 1981)
      • Maxamillian Henry Gelber (b. 1985)
  • (ii) Athina Mary, daughter of Stavros G.Livanos (m. 1961-1971, d. 1974)
  • (iii) Dagmar Rosita, daughter of Count Carl Ludwig Douglas (m.1972-2008)
    • Richard Spencer-Churchill (b. 1973, d. 1973)
    • Edward Albert Charles Spencer-Churchill (b. 1974)
    • Alexandra Elizabeth Mary Spencer-Churchill (b. 1977)
  • (iv) Lily Mahtani (m. 2008)

Siblings

  • Charles George William Colin Spencer-Churchill (b.1940, d. 2016) married:
    • (i) Gillian Spreckels Fuller (1965)
    • (ii) Elizabeth Jane Wyndham (1970)
    • (iii) Sarah Goodbody (2014)
  •  Sarah Consuelo Spencer-Churchill (b. 1921, d. 2000) married:
    • (i) Edwin F.Russell (1943)
    • (ii) Guy Burgos (1966)
    • (iii) Theodorous Roubanis (1967)
  • Caroline Spencer-Churchill (b. 1923, d. 1992) married Major Charles Hugo Waterhouse (1948)
  • Rosemary Mildred Spencer-Churchill (b. 1929) married Charles Robert Muir (1953)

12th Duke of Marlborough

Succeeded in 2014

Charles James Spencer-Churchill (b. 24th November 1955) married:

  • (i) (1990-1998) Rebecca Mary Few Brown
    • George John Godolphin Spencer-Churchill, Marquess of Blandford (b. 28th July 1992)
  • (ii) (2002) Edla Griffiths
    • Araminta Clementine Megan Cadogan Spencer-Churchill (b. 2007)
    • Caspar Ivor Ellis Spencer-Churchill (b. 2008)
12th Duke of Marlborough

Woodstock, Oxfordshire OX20 1PS

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